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Here are the scientific articles that we consider most relevant regarding withdrawal of psychiatric drugs.

Anon. 2020. “Duration and Severity of Antidepressant Withdrawal Effects.” Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 58(1):5. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2019.000084 .

Anon. nd “Discontinuing Psychotropic Medication: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology: SAGE Journals”. Accessed September 20, 2021a (

Anon. nd “Service-user efforts to maintain their wellbeing during and after successful withdrawal from antipsychotic medication - Miriam Larsen-Barr, Fred Seymour, 2021”. Accessed February 8, 2022b

Balon, Richard, Edward K. Silberman, Vladan Starcevic, Fiammetta Cosci, Rafael C. Freire, Antonio E. Nardi, Karl Rickels, and Richard Shader. 2019. “Benzodiazepines, Antidepressants and Addiction: A Plea for Conceptual Rigor and Consistency.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 33(11):1467-70. doi: 10.1177/0269881119878171

Belaise, Carlotta, Alessia Gatti, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, and Guy Chouinard. 2014. “Persistent Postwithdrawal Disorders Induced by Paroxetine, a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor, and Treated with Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 83(4):247-48. doi: 10.1159/000362317

Bergeron-Gaudin, Jean-Vincent. 2019. "The transfer of social innovation and the autonomous management of medication in mental health: alternative logics of the community environment put to the test of bio-medical power". Notebooks of CRISES.

Blaska, B. 1990. “The Myriad Medication Mistakes in Psychiatry: A Consumer's View”. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 41(9):993‑98. doi: 10.1176/ps.41.9.993 .

Brandt, Lasse, Tom Bschor, Jonathan Henssler, Martin Müller, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas Heinz, and Stefan Gutwinski. 2020. “Antipsychotic Withdrawal Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Frontiers in Psychiatry 11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.569912 .

Brown, Marion, and Stevie Lewis. 2021. “JCPCP v20 i04 Brown&Lewis”.

Chouinard, Guy, and Virginie-Anne Chouinard. 2015. “New Classification of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Withdrawal”. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 84(2):63-71. doi: 10.1159/000371865 .

Cooper, Ruth E., Éanna Hanratty, Nicola Morant, and Joanna Moncrieff. 2019. “Mental Health Professionals' Views and Experiences of Antipsychotic Reduction and Discontinuation.” PloS One 14(6):e0218711. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218711 .

Cooper, Ruth E., John P. Mason, Tim Calton, John Richardson, and Joanna Moncrieff. 2021. “Opinion Piece: The case for establishing a minimal medication alternative for psychosis and schizophrenia.” Psychosis 0(0):1‑10. doi: 10.1080/17522439.2021.1930119 .

Correll, Christoph U., Jose M. Rubio, and John M. Kane. 2018. “What Is the Risk-Benefit Ratio of Long-Term Antipsychotic Treatment in People with Schizophrenia?” » World Psychiatry 17(2):149-60. doi: .

Cosci, Fiammetta, and Guy Chouinard. 2020. “Acute and Persistent Withdrawal Syndromes Following Discontinuation of Psychotropic Medications.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 89(5):283-306. doi: 10.1159/000506868 .

​Crowe, M., Inder, M., & McCall, C. (2022). Experience of antidepressant use and discontinuation: A qualitative synthesis of the evidence. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 00, 1– 14.

Davies, James, and John Read. 2019. “A Systematic Review into the Incidence, Severity and Duration of Antidepressant Withdrawal Effects: Are Guidelines Evidence-Based?” Addictive Behaviors 97:111-21. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.08.027 .

Ellen, Van Leeuwen, Sibyl Anthierens, Mieke L. van Driel, An De Sutter, Evelien van den Branden, and Thierry Christiaens. 2021. “'Never change a winning team': GPs' perspectives on discontinuation of long-term antidepressants”. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 39(4):533-42. doi: 10.1080/02813432.2021.2006487 .

Fava, Giovanni A. 2020. "May Antidepressant Drugs Worsen the Conditions They Are Supposed to Treat?" The Clinical Foundations of the Oppositional Model of Tolerance”. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 10:2045125320970325. doi: 10.1177/2045125320970325 .

Fava, Giovanni A., Giada Benasi, Marcella Lucente, Emanuela Offidani, Fiammetta Cosci, and Jenny Guidi. 2018. “Withdrawal Symptoms after Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor Discontinuation: Systematic Review.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 87(4):195-203. doi: 10.1159/000491524 .

Fava, Giovanni A., and Fiammetta Cosci. 2019. “Understanding and Managing Withdrawal Syndromes After Discontinuation of Antidepressant Drugs.” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 80(6). doi: 10.4088/JCP.19com12794 .

Framer, Adele. 2021. “What I Have Learned from Helping Thousands of People Taper off Antidepressants and Other Psychotropic Medications.” Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 11:2045125321991274. doi: 10.1177/2045125321991274 .

Goff, Donald C., Peter Falkai, W. Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Ragy R. Girgis, Rene M. Kahn, Hiroyuki Uchida, Jingping Zhao, and Jeffrey A. Lieberman. 2017. “The Long-Term Effects of Antipsychotic Medication on Clinical Course in Schizophrenia.” American Journal of Psychiatry 174(9):840-49. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16091016 .

Groot, Peter C., and Jim van Os. 2020. “How User Knowledge of Psychotropic Drug Withdrawal Resulted in the Development of Person-Specific Tapering Medication.” Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 10:2045125320932452. doi: 10.1177/2045125320932452 .

Haddad, Peter. 1998. “The SSRI Discontinuation Syndrome”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 12(3):305-13. doi: 10.1177/026988119801200311 .

Harris, Rachel, and Jon Crossley. nd “A Systematic Review and Meta-Synthesis Exploring Client Experience of Reflecting Teams in Clinical Practice”. Journal of Family Therapy n/a(n/a). doi: .

Hengartner, Michael P. 2017. “Methodological Flaws, Conflicts of Interest, and Scientific Fallacies: Implications for the Evaluation of Antidepressants' Efficacy and Harm.” Frontiers in Psychiatry 8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00275 .

Hengartner, Michael P., James Davies, and John Read. 2020. “Antidepressant Withdrawal – the Tide Is Finally Turning.” Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 29. doi: 10.1017/S2045796019000465 .

Hengartner, Michael P., Lukas Schulthess, Anders Sorensen, and Adele Framer. 2020. “Protracted Withdrawal Syndrome after Stopping Antidepressants: A Descriptive Quantitative Analysis of Consumer Narratives from a Large Internet Forum.” Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 10:2045125320980573. doi: 10.1177/2045125320980573 .

Højlund, Mikkel, Adam F. Kemp, Peter M. Haddad, Joanna C. Neill, and Christoph U. Correll. 2021. “Standard versus Reduced Dose of Antipsychotics for Relapse Prevention in Multi-Episode Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials”. The Lancet Psychiatry 8(6):471-86. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00078-X .

Horowitz, Mark Abie, Sameer Jauhar, Sridhar Natesan, Robin M. Murray, and David Taylor. 2021a. "A Method for Tapering Antipsychotic Treatment That May Minimize the Risk of Relapse". Schizophrenia Bulletin. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbab017 .

Horowitz, Mark Abie, Sameer Jauhar, Sridhar Natesan, Robin M. Murray, and David Taylor. 2021b. "A Method for Tapering Antipsychotic Treatment That May Minimize the Risk of Relapse". Schizophrenia Bulletin 47(4):1116‑29. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbab017 .

Horowitz, Mark Abie, Robin M. Murray, and David Taylor. 2021a. “Tapering Antipsychotic Treatment”. JAMA Psychiatry 78(2):125-26. doi: 10.1001/ jamapsychiatry.2020.2166 .

Horowitz, Mark Abie, Robin M. Murray, and David Taylor. 2021b. “Withdrawal-Associated Relapse Is a Potential Source of Bias”. The Lancet Psychiatry 8(9):747-48. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00250-9 .

Horowitz, Mark Abie, and David Taylor. 2019. “Tapering of SSRI Treatment to Mitigate Withdrawal Symptoms.” The Lancet Psychiatry 6(6):538-46. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30032-X .

Horowitz, Mark Abie, and David Taylor. 2022. “How to Reduce and Stop Psychiatric Medication.” European Neuropsychopharmacology 55:4‑7. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.10.001 .

Horowitz, Mark, and Michael Wilcock. 2022. “Newer Generation Antidepressants and Withdrawal Effects: Reconsidering the Role of Antidepressants and Helping Patients to Stop.” Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 60(1):7-12. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2020.000080 .

Huff, Christy. 2021. “Response to “Acute and Persistent Withdrawal Syndromes Following Discontinuation of Psychotropic Medications” by Cosci et al. (2020)”. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 90(3):207‑8. doi: 10.1159/000514045 .

Iacobucci, Gareth. 2019. “NICE Updates Antidepressant Guidelines to Reflect Severity and Length of Withdrawal Symptoms.” BMJ 367:16103. doi: 10.1136/bmj.l6103 .

Jauhar, Sameer, Joseph Hayes, Guy M. Goodwin, David S. Baldwin, Philip J. Cowen, and David J. Nutt. 2019. “Antidepressants, Withdrawal, and Addiction; Where Are We Now? Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) 33(6):655-59. doi: 10.1177/0269881119845799 .

Jha, Manish K., A. John Rush, and Madhukar H. Trivedi. 2018. “When Discontinuing SSRI Antidepressants Is a Challenge: Management Tips.” American Journal of Psychiatry 175(12):1176-84. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18060692 .

Karter, Justin M. 2020. “Conversations with Clients about Antidepressant Withdrawal and Discontinuation.” Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 10:2045125320922738. doi: 10.1177/2045125320922738 .

Lehman, Peter. 2018. Psychotropics, Succeeding in Withdrawal – Successfully withdrawing from neuroleptics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, psychostimulants and tranquilizers.

Lerner, Alicja, and Michael Klein. 2019. “Dependence, withdrawal and rebound of CNS drugs: an update and regulatory considerations for new drugs development”. Brain Communications 1(1). doi: 10.1093/braincomms/fcz025 .

Lincoln, Tania M., Daniel Sommer, Marie Könemund, and Björn Schlier. 2021. “A Rating Scale to Inform Successful Discontinuation of Antipsychotics and Antidepressants.” Psychiatry Research 298:113768. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113768 .

Lindblad, Anna, Gert Helgesson, and Manne Sjöstrand. 2019. “Towards a Palliative Care Approach in Psychiatry: Do We Need a New Definition? Journal of Medical Ethics 45(1):26-30. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2018-104944 .

McCabe, Joanne, Mike Wilcock, Kate Atkinson, Richard Laugharne, and Rohit Shankar. 2020. “General Practitioners' and Psychiatrists' Attitudes towards Antidepressant Withdrawal.” BJPsych Open 6(4):e64. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2020.48 .

Mendes, Aysha. 2019. “Depression, Antidepressants and Withdrawal in the Community.” British Journal of Community Nursing 24(10):508-9. doi: 10.12968/bjcn.2019.24.10.508 .

Moncrieff, J. 2018. “Research on a 'Drug-Centred' Approach to Psychiatric Drug Treatment: Assessing the Impact of Mental and Behavioral Alterations Produced by Psychiatric Drugs”. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 27(2):133-40. doi: 10.1017/S2045796017000555 .

Moncrieff, Joanna. 2018. “Against the stream: Antidepressants are not antidepressants – an alternative approach to drug action and implications for the use of antidepressants”. BJPsych Bulletin 42(1):42‑44. doi: 10.1192/bjb.2017.11 .

Moncrieff, Joanna, Swapnil Gupta, and Mark Abie Horowitz. 2020. “Barriers to Stopping Neuroleptic (Antipsychotic) Treatment in People with Schizophrenia, Psychosis or Bipolar Disorder.” Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 10:2045125320937910. doi: 10.1177/2045125320937910 .

MS, Ashley Boback. 2021. “Cochrane Review Calls for More Research on Antidepressant Withdrawal.” Mad In America. Accessed May 10, 2021 ( ).

Pies, Ronald, W., and David Osser N. nd “Sorting Out the Antidepressant “Withdrawal” Controversy”. Psychiatric Times. Accessed March 24, 2021 ( ).

Qureshi, Mutahira M., and Allan H. Young. 2021. “Hamlet's Augury: How to Manage Discontinuation of Mood Stabilizers in Bipolar Disorder:” Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. doi: 10.1177/20451253211000612 .

Robinson, Julia. nd “Prescribers Should Warn Patients about Dependence before Starting Them on High-Risk Drugs, Says NICE”. The Pharmaceutical Journal. Accessed October 26, 2021 ( ).

Stockman, Tom. 2019. “What it was like to stop an antidepressant.” Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 9:2045125319884834. doi: 10.1177/2045125319884834 .

Stockmann, Tom, Dolapo Odegbaro, Sami Timimi, and Joanna Moncrieff. 2018. “SSRI and SNRI Withdrawal Symptoms Reported on an Internet Forum.” The International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 29(3-4):175-80. doi: 10.3233/JRS-180018 .

Strand, Mattias, Manne Sjöstrand, and Anna Lindblad. 2020. “A palliative care approach in psychiatry: clinical implications”. BMC Medical Ethics 21(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12910-020-00472-8 .

Tomlinson, Anneka, Katharine Boaden, and Andrea Cipriani. 2019. “Withdrawal, Dependence and Adverse Events of Antidepressants: Lessons from Patients and Data.” Evidence-Based Mental Health 22(4):137-38. doi: 10.1136/ebmental-2019-300121 .

Torjesen, Ingrid. 2021. “Antidepressants: Evidence on Safe Discontinuation Is Lacking, Concludes Cochrane Review.” BMJ 373:n1065. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1065 .

Van Leeuwen, Ellen, Mirko Petrovic, Mieke L. van Driel, An Im De Sutter, Robert Vander Stichele, Tom Declercq, and Thierry Christiaens. 2018. “Withdrawal versus Continuation of Long-Term Antipsychotic Drug Use for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Older People with Dementia.” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3:CD007726. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007726.pub3 .

White, Edward, John Read, and Sherry Julo. 2021. “The Role of Facebook Groups in the Management and Raising of Awareness of Antidepressant Withdrawal: Is Social Media Filling the Void Left by Health Services? » Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 11:2045125320981174. doi: 10.1177/2045125320981174 .

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